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History of medicine  

Wolf-Schindler semi-flexible gastroscope found in Granelli Pavilion in the early 2000 and now preserved in the Historical Archive of the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan


  1. The scientific addresses and research activities, also in collaboration, are addressed in particular to the exegesis of the historical sources and closest heuristics (nineteenth and twentieth century) in order to reconstruct and critically interpret the methodological and technological processes , which are the basis of the problems of contemporary medicine. These topics are closely linked to education that, for the  History of Medicine, continues to require comparisons and updates in order to integrate the objectives of the Degree Courses of Medical School (Syngle Cycle Degree, Second cycle Cources and Bachelor Degrees of Health professions). Research is conducted on original and unpublished documents,  in anticipation of national and international conferences;
  2. HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL PREVENTION TECHNIQUES with research in the field of environment, labor and health;
  3. BIOGRAPHIES OF PSYSICIANS AND SURGEONS OF LOMBARDY, through unpublished archival documents, in anticipation of conferences dedicated to them;
  4. HISTORY OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND MEDICAL AND SURGERY INSTRUMENTS concerning instruments used at the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan in clinical practice during the twentieth century. The tools recovered from various Pavilions, for their historical importance and usefulness in teaching, are studied according to the criteria of today's scientific museology. They, together with the related clinical cases of the time, retrievable in the literature and in the Historical Archive of the Ospedale Maggiore, they are able to offer some interesting and original starting points to evaluate the major themes of medical and surgical pathology of the last century, with particular reference to the figure of the patient and the health care worker. The tool has been identified, described, evaluated and presented at national and international conferences international congresses because of its importance in the technical development of gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  5. STRUCTURES AND METHODS FOR THE PRESERVATION OF BODIES (MODELS OF  MUSEUM EDUCATION): between the main frames of reference for the research we can find academic institutions and  some facilities of the anatomical Museums of eastern Lombardy and surrounding areas. In particular, the study of materials sufficiently integrated (organic pieces, protocols, scientific publications, fine art), allows us to reconstruct the entirety of the underlying stories and to reflect on the use in the past of models and biological sources, for the training of medical, surgical and health care staff;
  6. IDENTIFICATION, PRESERVATION AND ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINE nineteenth-century library collections less protected than those present in important conservation institutions. The nature of such research also provides an opportunity for  a historiographical revision of figures from the far neglected by more recent historiography. There may be also the possibility that the results could assume the guise of study seminary, monographs or a historical-medical exhibition;
  7. SOURCES AND TOOLS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE TECHNIQUE IN MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE SPECIALISATION SCHOOLS: In the case of the health professions usually lack the cognitive data regarding the consistency of the scientific and technical heritage. Not only the instrumental equipment must be preserved, but also the sources that refer to it, whether they are of a technical nature (relative to the phase of conception, design, construction), or organizational (relating to the marketing, distribution);
  8. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION, HEALTH INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC INSTANCES  and not only about the history of public health, but also about health education and health professions: The recent and controversial  epidemic / pandemic events have highlighted the problem of  the evaluation of the relationship between citizenship and public health. It is an ancient theme, but it appears to be a useful historical evaluation of specific strategies, especially in the context of contagious diseases.

Other images  

Proximal end of the gastroscope


 Distal end of the gastroscope

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